content tagged as Food Health & Nutrition

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Flavanols/tannins are polymerized catechin or gallic acid based constituents abundant in produce that have physiological benefits such as assisting glycemic response and inhibiting bacterial adhesion. The functional properties of flavanols arise from structural characteristics including abundant hydroxylation and planar ring regions, which can facilitate strong molecular interactions with proteins. This ability to complex with proteins can lead to changes in the functional properties of proteins by blocking or altering active sites. A practical effect of flavanol-protein interaction is inhibition of enzyme activity, most notably of the digestive enzymes alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, which in vivo can modulate glucose response after consumption of a high-glycemic content meal. Another functional property of a specific class of condensed tannins is suppression of the adherence of E. coli to epithelium cell walls, thereby inhibiting infection. This symposium will consist of four presentations highlighting: (1) molecular explanation of flavanol/tannin structure and mechanisms of association between flavanols/tannins and proteins; (2) effects of flavanol consumption on glycemic response and determination of blood glucose over time profiles; (3) in vitro determination of the inhibitory effect of flavanols/tannins on digestive enzyme activity; and (4) in vivo benefits of cranberry flavanols.
Participants will learn about the general biology of vitamin D and its hormonal regulation of multiple aspects of health apart from its key role in skeletal maintenance. Topics to be discussed include alternative sources of vitamin D supply by UV synthesis and diet and criteria for defining adequacy and risk of inadequacy.

Participants will also learn about results from a clinical intervention study where vitamin D was supplemented (both D2 and D3 forms) for a period of 6 months to examine its effects on cognitive function and mood in a healthy elderly cohort.

Vitamin D, by direct and indirect regulation of more than 200 genes, exerts bioactivity as a hormone, controlling calcium absorption, tissue and immune cell growth and inflammation. Current recommendations for vitamin D adequacy are associated with requirements for skeletal maintenance. The recommended daily allowances (RDA) as defined for bone health are 600 IU (15 μg)/day up to 70 years of age, and 800 IU/day over 70 years of age. By consensus, adequate vitamin D status for mineral homeostasis, bone health, and muscle function is defined as serum levels of 25-OH-D above 75 nM, insufficiency in the range of 50–75 nM, and deficiency below 50 nM. It is likely that elevated needs for vitamin D associated with chronic diseased states, including in bone, lead to depletion of tissue stores of vitamin D. Co-incidence of multiple diseases states frequently occurs in aging, and can account for the elevated need and risk of depletion in older people. In this session, the synthesis and regulation of the multiple functions of vitamin D and comparative bio-efficacy of vitamin D3 and D2 analogues will be explained.

UV-mediated synthesis of vitamin D3 accounts for more than 90% of vitamin D supply in adults, although dietary sources, including from oily fish, egg yolks, and meat, are known. A new and convenient source of vitamin D2 is increasingly available from UV-treated mushrooms and, potentially other fungal sources, including yeasts. Controlled production of vitamin D2 from the pro-vitamin D2 substrate ergosterol in fungi and yeasts represents an additional opportunity for development of functional-food ingredients to support dietary supplementation of vitamin D. In this session, the logistics of quality-controlled enhancement of vitamin D2 in substrates containing ergosterol for production of fresh and processed sources of vitamin D2 in the food supply will be discussed.

Despite abundant cross-sectional evidence that low-vitamin-D status is correlated with dementia and cognitive decline in aging, interventional evidence for benefits of vitamin D supplementation in the elderly is lacking. In support of the importance of vitamin D for brain health is the presence of the enzyme that produces the active form of vitamin D, 1α-hydroxylase, in cerebrospinal fluid, and that the receptor for the active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3, is found throughout the human brain. We conducted a clinical trial aimed at measuring effects of vitamin D, supplied as either vitamin D3 or vitamin D2 in a mushroom matrix together with control mushroom and placebo, on cognition and mood in a cohort of healthy elderly people. In this session, the findings from this pioneering clinical trial will be presented and interpreted.
Recently, FAO announced a second set of descriptors to categorize food into categories based on degree of processing. The most used categorization for processing uses the terms nonprocessed and raw, moderately processed, and highly processed. They have added the following classification for describing degree of food processing: unprocessed or minimally processed foods; processed culinary ingredients; processed foods; and ultra-processed food and drink products. The proponent of this classification system has argued that this more fairly defines degree of food processing and comes to the conclusion we rely too heavily on processed foods in our diets. Unfortunately, there is scant evidence that this classification system is actually useful to design dietary guidelines for the consuming public. In this symposium the speakers explore the topic of food processing in general, particularly in light of the FAO guidelines, and the utility of the adopted food processing classification system to assist researchers and those who develop dietary guidelines. This session is sponsored by Phi Tau Sigma and the IFT, AND, ANS and IFIC Task Force on Food Processing. This is addition to the Nutrition and Engineering Divisions of IFT.
In May 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration released the final rule to update the iconic Nutrition Facts label in order to reflect the evolution of nutrition science over the past two decades. Most manufacturers and brand owners will need to implement the new label by July 26, 2018. Several items, including the labeling of serving sizes, added sugar, and Daily Values for certain key nutrients will change based on the final rule. These changes will not only impact retail products and CPG companies but also the food-service sector and related companies. Additionally, the FDA is now enforcing the Menu Labeling Final Rule, which requires restaurants and similar retail food establishments to provide calorie and other nutrition information for standard menu items, including food on display and self-service food. At this symposium, experts from various fields (e.g. CPG, food service, or nonprofit organization) will discuss what these nutrition-labeling changes mean to the retail and food service sectors of the food industry. Topics to be discussed include changes to serving sizes, which may have implications for nutrient content claims, changes in the Daily Values for nutrients like fat and some vitamins and minerals, and the addition of added sugars to the label. This presentation will highlight what to calculate and document—not just graphically reformat. For restaurant-menu labeling, we’ll discuss requirements of the regulation and implications for restaurants including collecting and managing records of nutritional analysis; revising, replacing and updating menus/menu boards; employee training; legal review; and recipe development. The impact of these changes on the dairy foods category will also be discussed. While some of these modifications may have a beneficial or neutral effect, other changes will have major implications for how the industry is able to talk about the nutrient contributions of foods to the diet. These topics will be helpful to the product developers as well as professionals working in nutrition, regulatory, marketing, and packaging. Navigating the nutrition labeling waters is a primer for all packaged goods owners including importers and food service operators.
Recent criticisms around conflict of interest as well as lack of transparency and reproducibility of industry-funded studies have gained media attention over the last few years. Are these legitimate concerns? What are the key factors in maintaining integrity of industry-funded research? Experts will provide multiple perspectives on these topics. In addition, recommendations for improving the image of industry-funded research will be presented.
US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) labeling actions, the demand for cleaner labels, and plant-based eating patterns that include healthy fats and oils are among consumer and marketplace trends that are driving innovation and development in the food industry. In 2015, the US FDA announced the removal of the GRAS status for partially hydrogenated oils (PHOs) and the consequent phasing out of PHOs from foods. The FDA further indicated the need to find solutions for trans-fat replacement in foods. Because regulatory, nutritional, and environmental trends are important market drivers, we could expect that need for not only PHOs replacement, but also a significant reduction of saturates. Originally, oils were not easily accepted as solutions for the replacement of PHOs in bakery applications because of the required functionality of solid fats. However, the industry has discovered that high stability oils such as high oleic oils can be successfully used in many bakery and frying applications. This session aims at providing a detailed overview of the application of healthy oils including low saturated oils, high stability oils, and omega-3 oils in food applications. In addition, improvement of the oxidative stability and functional properties of omega-3 oils in food applications will be discussed. As expected, these healthy oils can be part of reduced saturated fat systems in applications where solid fat functionality is desired. Types of fats and oils used as well as extrinsic structuring materials used are important when structuring fat systems with reduced saturated fats. A structuring tool-box addressing saturated fat reduction in a bakery product (such as pie crust or cookies) based on physical, functional, and sensorial properties, as well as processing parameters of the dough and the final product, will be explained. Representatives from academia and industry will share their research, insight, and knowledge on consumer preferences of healthy oils and fat systems as well as their applications in frying oils, shortenings, and emulsions. This will show a broad picture of the state of the art in the industry and academia, and lead to identification of different opportunities for food applications of healthy oil and fat systems.
Spray drying is still the most common technique used to produce dairy powders with prolonged shelf life. The demand for fortified dairy products and emulsions continues to increase: Tthe infant formula market in Australia alone (including export) grows at more than 45% per annum. Other rapidly emerging markets include specialized dairy ingredients for sports nutrition, an aging population, and improving gut health. The variability of feed compositions, which often comprise heat-sensitive ingredients, require a much better understanding of various pre-treatment options and drying conditions affecting the final powder properties. The production of any spray-dried powders that fail to meet the consumer’s specifications represents significant monetary and resource losses, and increases environmental footprint. This is still a practical challenge faced by the dairy and food industry, as there are specific requirements to meet the demand of increasingly specialized dairy ingredients for application in range of end products including high protein beverages, emulsion-based products, bars, and other such products.
The objectives of panel are to both stimulate open discussion (The panel moderator and presenters will use appropriate comments and questions to stimulate audience participation; this is primarily for the audience) and to expand on the implications of the FDA Rule on the following topics: (1) Inclusion or exclusion of non-digestible carbohydrates as dietary fiber (7 sources of DF have been approved to date, May 9, 2016 and 25 are being reviewed by the FDA); (2) review strength of evidence for 8-identified beneficial physiological effects of DF for human health (that a non-digestible carbohydrate have sufficient clinical evidence to demonstrate a beneficial physiological effect for health); (3) discuss approved AOAC Methods to measure DF; (4) impact of FDA Rule on consumers meeting recommended DF requirements of 25 and 38 g/day for men and women, respectively; (5) FDA interpretation of DF approved or disapproved as “intrinsic and or intact” sources; (6) the value of increased fecal weight and decreased transit times as important beneficial physiological effects for health (i.e., laxation); (7) the energy value of DF for food label calorie/energy calculations and; (8) expanded discussions on the difference among FDA, Canada and other country’s regulations on issues relating to DF. In summary, the breadth and depth of this panel is for audience participation to attain the best interpretation of the FDA’s rule on DF.
With current changes to the food label underway and anticipated changes under discussion, notably the definitions of “healthy” and “natural,” food scientists are a critical part of both the process and the discussion. Not only are they integral to what these changes mean to food composition as it relates to taste, performance, and shelf life, but they are essential in communications to health professionals, consumers, and policy makers that assist in navigating the label and defining the purpose and function of ingredients on the label. The current level of conversation around “clean” labels, skepticism about food ingredients and how foods are processed, as well as calls from multiple constituencies for sustainable products necessitates heightened understanding of how the food on our grocery shelves is made and the decisions food manufacturers must make in order to meet consumer demand for healthful, high-quality, and safe foods at affordable prices. This session connects food science fundamentals with labeling changes and the current food and nutrition landscape to identify and communications challenges and opportunities for food scientists and technologists.

This session is supported by Phi Tau Sigma.
The decades-old advice to limit fat in the diet has not only been overturned by the latest Dietary Guidelines for Americans, but will now be further underscored by a review of the term “healthy” as the FDA seeks to modernize regulations for nutrition-related labeling claims. In this session, Dr. Peter Jones, Director of the Richardson Centre of Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals at the University of Manitoba, will discuss the current evidence that links various fatty acids with the major chronic diseases. Emerging science is starting to clarify the beneficial and essential role that unsaturated fats play in healthy diets. Some of the newest science is focusing particularly on monounsaturated fats that appear to have multiple benefits beyond the typical lipid-lowering endpoints usually measured when discussing the role of fats in the diet. Dr. Penny Kris-Etherton, Distinguished Professor of Nutrition at Penn State University, and lipid expert on numerous policy boards ranging from the US Dietary Guidelines to the American Heart Association, will discuss the latest science and how it is being interpreted and translated into public policy and new labeling regulations. This includes the implied nutrient content claim “healthy.” David Dzisiak, oils leader for Dow AgroSciences, will delve into the latest consumer demand for clean labels and products that are “free from” additives or unknown ingredients. This challenges our industry to innovate in such a way that a package of attributes can be delivered that includes taste, function, health, shelf life, and sustainability when possible. The concept of “healthy” is about to take on a multi-faceted meaning as researchers and regulators redefine the term. The discussion of these issues in this session will provide industry with greater insight as they develop new, healthier food products to meet consumer expectations.