content tagged as Sensory Science

1 - 9 Results out of 9
What You See and What You Taste: Color-Flavor Interaction in Product Development

When: Wednesday, 07/18/2018 through Wednesday, 07/18/2018, 10:30 AM - 12:00 PM

Where: McCormick Place - S401ABC

Color influences the taste, aroma, and acceptability of foods and beverages. People are visual and color is used as a clue to identifying foods. Usually, when the color is congruent or appropriate, flavor is often correctly identified. This has been studied across different applications like beverages, white vs. red wine, and spicy salsa. Incorrect coloring will create an expectation that is not matched by the food, resulting in misidentification and decreased acceptability. Using appropriate colors in foods helps to design foods which give expected flavor. Colors also influence basic tastes like perception of sweetness or heat for example, sweetness can be reduced by coloring the beverages with yellow, and this can help with sugar reduction in the application. Sometimes adding unexpected colors can also pique the customer’s interest and hence can be used to one’s advantage. Flavor reduction or enhancement can be carried out in nutritional beverages/foods depending on the requirement.

Color also affects flavor perception depending on how the flavor is inhaled, either orthonasally (by nostrils) or retronasally (by mouth). Also the color may be intrinsic (e.g., colored beverage) to the object being smelled/tasted or extrinsic (package color) and both these can influence the flavor perception. There are different possible mechanisms by which the color-flavor interactions occur and these will be discussed. Cognitive influences also affect how colors and flavors are perceived. So far, little research has been carried out on how cognitive and contextual constraints may mediate color–flavor interactions. The discrepancies demonstrated in previously-published color–flavor studies may reflect differences in the sensory expectations that different people generate as a result of their prior associative experiences. Color–flavor interactions in flavor perception cannot be understood solely in terms of the principles of multisensory integration (the currently dominant theoretical framework) but the role of higher-level cognitive factors, such as expectations, must also be considered.
Characterizing Key Attributes of Various Proteins in Food Applications

When: Tuesday, 07/17/2018 through Tuesday, 07/17/2018, 08:00 AM - 09:00 AM

Where: McCormick Place - S403AB

In recent years protein has become the most important and preferred ingredient by all consumer segments. According to a Food and Health survey conducted by the International Food Information Council (2016), protein tops the list of nutrients people want to consume. In the past two years there has been an increase of about 63% in new products with some kind of protein claim. Globally this number is even higher: approximately 85% (Inova 2017).

Proteins from various sources are increasingly available for application in various food products. Depending on its source, protein plays three major roles in food products: taste, nutrition, and functionality. More and more consumers are interested to learn about value of proteins derived from various sources. This symposium is being organized with the objective of characterizing various properties of proteins derived from different sources (e.g. milk, whey, pea, potato, soy, rice, etc.). Eminent subject experts will provide the latest updates on the research that is being conducted in this area.
Benchmarks, Hurdles, and Metrics to Compare Products and Categories: Is There a Right Way to Set a Standard for Success?

When: Tuesday, 07/17/2018 through Tuesday, 07/17/2018, 12:30 PM - 02:00 PM

Where: McCormick Place - S401ABC

Benchmarking is a tactic to assess how a given product matches up to competitors or standards in the marketplace. It can be used to establish sensory or business practice for the desired user experience. Benchmarking may be used to define fundamental, baseline metrics for a product, which allows for a form of performance tracking over product iterations. The benchmarking approach can be derived from a comprehensive series of quantitative studies all the way through to simple category review done in a small qualitative setting. Depending on the needs and risks, benchmarking can give the business informative design decisions to drive product design and user experience.

The goal of this curated symposium, the third in a series, is to present IFT members with a dialog between industry professionals on truths and myths behind practices that are thought to be commonly agreed upon approaches. In the case of benchmarking, knowing what the category benchmarks are for a given product may help the cross-functional team understand their strategy for product design, development and communication. There is a different point of view that the use of benchmarks that are general can hobble the same product design effort. Different disciplines in product design have varied perceptions regarding the value and approach to benchmarking. The Sensory and Consumer Sciences Division (SCSD) has selected a number of practicing professionals to discuss this area and provide understanding to both the division membership and the greater food and beverage product design and development community on the status of this area of interest.
Flavors of Food Protein Ingredients and Their Applications in Product Formulation

When: Tuesday, 07/17/2018 through Tuesday, 07/17/2018, 02:15 PM - 03:45 PM

Where: McCormick Place - S403AB

Plant proteins are important protein sources to meet the nutrition demands of the increasing population. Flavor is an important aspect of food ingredients, including protein ingredients, that dictates consumer acceptability of the final food products. Even though great progress has been made in the off-flavor control of soy protein, off-flavor of many plant protein ingredients remains a major limiting factor for their use in food products. Protein ingredients from different sources that carry unique flavor profiles, which can be influenced by the processing and storage conditions. In addition to their intrinsic flavors, protein ingredients interact with flavor compounds and influence the overall flavor profile of the final products when used in formulation or flavor encapsulation. This symposium aims to cover the intrinsic flavors of protein ingredients as well as their interaction with other food components that affect product flavor profiles. The odor and taste of protein ingredients and the effects of processing on protein flavor profile will be addressed in the first two presentations. The first presentation will be an overview of the off-flavor in pulses, which will also provide background knowledge for audiences who are not familiar with protein flavor or flavor chemistry. The second presentation will report the findings from ongoing research on rice protein flavor. Protein-flavor interaction and its influence on food formulation will be discussed in the third presentation. The fourth presentation will report on sensory evaluation studies of plant protein-based food products that are currently on the market. It will provide an understanding of how different attributes of protein ingredient influence consumer liking and how the information can be used in formulation to meet consumer needs. The topics will be of interest to audiences both from the food industry and academia who are working with protein ingredients or sensory evaluation.
Instructional Tools/Approaches Used to Promote Student-Centered Learning in Food Science-Related Courses

When: Tuesday, 07/17/2018 through Tuesday, 07/17/2018, 10:30 AM - 12:00 PM

Where: McCormick Place - S501ABCD

A diverse agricultural workforce with backgrounds in STEM fields, including food science, is necessary to ensure that the U.S. continues to be a global leader in agriculture. In order for undergraduate students majoring in food science to be prepared for jobs in industry, government, and academia, they must possess research and professional skills, be able to apply knowledge, and think critically to address and solve problems (Roberts et al. 2010). In order to develop a student’s ability to apply knowledge and think critically, more innovative and creative instructional tools and approaches must be developed and implemented (Jideani and Jideani 2012). There are many factors that can contribute to student conceptual understanding of course content, where the most crucial is transforming students into active learners. Briefly, active learning is defined as a process whereby students are engaged in activities such as reading, writing, discussion, or problem solving to promote critical thinking skills (i.e., analyzing, evaluating, and creating) in contrast to passively sitting and listening to a lecture. Some instructional tools/techniques that can be used to significantly increase the retention of information include: audiovisuals, demonstrations, discussions, focus groups, practice by doing, peer mentorship, and visual learning tools such as the graphic syllabus. The graphic syllabus is a novel variation of and supplement to the texted syllabus. Conventionally, the syllabus is a text document, which serves as an outline of the course of study as well as usually viewed as the stereotypical “contract” with students as an institutional requirement. The organization, as well as presentation, of the syllabus could set the pace or environment for learning. Therefore, this workshop will address how active learning in food science-related courses could be achieved through the use of a graphic syllabus as a visual learning tool and demonstrate how sensory stimulation via the 5 senses can be used to deliver selective course content discussed from the graphic syllabus in a creative way to promote critical thinking and active learning in the classroom.
The Unique Nutrition and Feeding Needs of Infants and Toddlers: Considerations for Product Development

When: Monday, 07/16/2018 through Monday, 07/16/2018, 10:30 AM - 12:00 PM

Where: McCormick Place - S405AB

Infancy and early childhood are periods of rapid growth and development, which requires adequate consumption of essential macro- and micronutrients. Prior research has shown that dietary patterns developed during these early life stages can form the basis for future food and beverage preferences, thus potentially impacting early- and later-life development. What young American infants and children are consuming is a current hot topic as the Agricultural Act of 2014 called for Birth to 24 month (B-24) Guidelines to be written as part of the 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for the first time. The data presented in this session will help answer questions on what our children are (and are not) consuming, as well as shed some light on what factors influence a child’s acceptance of food and as such influence overall diet quality.
Sensory Science: The Bridge Between Food and Health

When: Tuesday, 07/17/2018 through Tuesday, 07/17/2018, 10:30 AM - 12:00 PM

Where: McCormick Place - S401ABC

The sensory properties of foods and beverages are active before, during, and after an eating occasion. They direct us towards specific foods and guide preferences and portion selection, but can also be used to enhance experience of fullness during and after consumption. The sensory experience of eating is an important determinant of food intake control, often attributed to the positive hedonic response. However, beyond their role in liking, sensory properties also guide energy intake within and across meals. Understanding the important influence of a food’s sensory characteristics on energy intake can provide opportunities to use them in the development of products to support the control of energy intake.

Sensory cues associated with a food, such as the sight, smell, and taste of a food, have previously been identified as barriers to consumption of certain nutrient dense foods, and implicated in the overconsumption of energy by promoting palatability. A series of new studies have demonstrated that the same sensory properties can be used to reduce energy consumption without a loss in palatability or satisfaction. Food texture can impact the rate of energy intake and subsequent satiety per kcal consumed and has been shown to support reductions in ad-libitum energy intake while maintaining meal satisfaction. Palatability is not a static feature of a food, and sensory specific satiety, variety and metabolic need state interact to influence food intake. It is thus important to consider the sensory experience of eating beyond quantifying sensations and the role they play in promoting palatability. Additionally, the combined sensory experience plays a critical role in flavor-nutrient associations and can inform learning and future food intake behaviors and through this influence meal size and satiety. Rather than using sensory properties to simply describe a food, we can consider these characteristics as important functional features of foods and beverages that provide an opportunity to enhance the experience of eating, while encouraging nutrient intake and supporting sustainable reductions in energy.

This session will take sensory approaches beyond first-bite assessment of qualities to demonstrate the functional role sensory properties have to play in nutrition and their application to product development for consumer benefit. We aim to examine the different aspects of individual consumer eating behaviors and the specific sensory characteristics of foods to highlight recent advances in our understanding of how certain taste and sensory characteristics can be used to promote better energy intake control. This session will also identify opportunities for interactions between sensory, taste, food, and nutritional sciences to innovate and impact eating behaviors and body weight management.
The Use of 'Omics' for Evaluating Meat Quality

When: Monday, 07/16/2018 through Monday, 07/16/2018, 03:30 PM - 05:00 PM

Where: McCormick Place - S401ABC

This session will explore the use of “omics” type approaches for improvement of meat quality, specifically, genomics and metabolomics. In large part genetic make-up dictates meat quality through the preferential gene expression towards traits which influence meat quality. Furthermore, specific metabolites can directly influence meat quality factors, such as color and flavor. Measurement of small compounds or metabolites is somewhat novel for the meat science area. Numerous factors are known to impact meat quality. However, in many cases it is known why these factors influence meat quality. More recently “omics” approaches have been utilized to develop this understanding. This session will describe relationships of genomics with meat quality and relationships between specific metabolites with meat color and flavor.
Taste: A 360 Toolbox for Dietary Compliance  

When: Monday, 07/16/2018 through Monday, 07/16/2018, 10:30 AM - 12:00 PM

Where: McCormick Place - S401ABC

Taste, understood as the 5 modalities (sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and umami) as well as aroma, palatability, and other aspects of the overall sensory experience, is the foundation of individual food choice. Humans and animals have evolved to use taste as a means of selecting nutrients and avoiding toxins. Physiological mechanisms underlying taste also prepare the body to metabolize foods. Scientists are just beginning to understand the complexities of how taste modalities and modifiers interact to motivate food choice and food intake decisions in today’s food environment.

The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) emphasize the need to “shift” food selection to nutrient dense choices. Of the taste modalities (salty, bitter, sweet, sour, umami), primary sources of two are considered in the DGA be food components to reduce in the diet – sodium and added sugars. Fatty “taste” (which includes saturated fat – a third food component to reduce) also alters food texture, carries aromas, and triggers satiety processes and thus, has implications for satisfaction. Sodium, sugars, and fats in foods can improve the acceptability of foods with other, less-favored taste modalities (i.e., bitter and sour) including those in food groups for which intake by Americans is particularly poor: fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. There is also evidence for physiological control of “taste appetite,” which may dictate an individual’s drive for particular tastes. Given the interactions of taste modalities (e.g., sweet reducing bitter), physiological drives for certain intensities of taste, and the functional properties of food components with salty, sweet, and fat “taste,” identifying strategies to limit certain food components, while still promoting intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, is complex.

The objective of this session is to evaluate the state-of-the-science related to taste mechanisms and tools for modulating the taste of food, shifting taste preferences, and influencing food selection in the context of improving adherence to dietary guidance. This concept will be explored from the perspectives of (1) tools that are currently available for modifying the “taste” of foods and the taste experience, and (2) consumer preferences and tools for modifying these preferences. This session will bring awareness to the complexities and challenges related to taste and identify new opportunities for understanding taste to improve dietary patterns. Research opportunities and multidisciplinary interactions required for understanding taste and improving dietary patterns will be identified and discussed.