content tagged as Food Chemistry

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Protein fortification is a global and growing trend within the food industry. The inclusion of protein is not always straightforward and properties, including solubility, texture, astringency, and lack of functionality are some of the limiting factors. Hydrolyzing proteins with proteases can solve some of these hurdles by increasing solubility, adding functionality, altering texture, and reducing astringency. However, protein hydrolysates may be bitter, limiting their widespread use. Factors such as peptide length, peptide hydrophobicity (Q-score), and the hydrophobicity of the C-terminal amino acid in a peptide are reported in literature. Traditional as well as novel proteases can be strategically tailored to optimize properties. This session will describe an ideal way that new proteases can be employed to achieve targeted properties. Through collaboration between the protein ingredient industry and the enzyme industry, the development of a more valuable hydrolyzed protein ingredient can be created that optimizes these competing properties. The optimal approach is to work backwards, first through defining the target application category for the ingredient; defining specific critical performance hurdles for the protein solubility, thermal stability, flavor, and astringency and nutrition; and then, through experimentation, employing proteases with known cleavage behavior to achieve these specific goals.
Scientific evidence suggests that a healthy eating pattern with increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant-based foods is associated with reduced risk of developing some chronic diseases. Bioactive compounds in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains may, in part, be responsible for their health benefits. Recent research demonstrated dietary patterns play important roles in reducing the incidence and prevalence of chronic diseases. This symposium will bring together three world-renowned experts in bioactive compounds, nutrition, and human health, and will provide a forum for discussion and debate about the potential beneficial effects of bioactive compounds for chronic disease reduction.

The first presentation of the symposium will discuss current research on health-promoting synergies and interactions of bioactive compounds and nutrients in whole foods in the prevention of chronic diseases, and focus on the mechanisms of action. The second presentation will discuss the importance to human clinical trials in the assessment of bioavailability of bioactive compounds and their function will be discussed in the third presentation. The third presentation will discuss intersections of food, nutrition and health in product development of functional foods, and to present domestic and international regulatory challenges and hurdles for food industries. Concluding remarks will include thoughts on research needs and clinical considerations for the food industry to ensure delivery of health opportunities to consumers.

This symposium is being organized by the Nutrition Division and co-sponsored by the Program Committee of Phi Tau Sigma – The Honor Society of Food Science and Technology.
The use of luminescent compounds and optical luminescent techniques in food science and engineering applications has been mostly limited to: (1) assessing food composition (e.g., quantification of vitamins), (2) detecting specific contaminants (e.g., aflatoxins) or, more recently, (3) authenticating specific foods (e.g., luminescence fingerprinting of olive oil). However, recent systematic study of the environmental sensitivities of lumiphores relevant to foods and their basic photophysical properties has significantly expanded the use and applicability of specific luminescent compounds and optical techniques in food research and development. This symposium will cover recent advances in optical luminescence techniques including the development and applicability of optical sensors of food quality and safety, the utilization of intrinsic and extrinsic luminescent probes to follow important technological processes such as formation and stability of delivery systems, and the identification of lumiphores as effective photosensitizers for microbial inactivation.

This symposium will first familiarize the audience with basic photophysical principles and explain how the photophysical properties of lumiphores respond to, and potentially report on, specific chemical and physical properties of a food matrix.

Second, it will discuss the use of noninvasive edible luminescent probes as sensors of food quality, stability and safety in real time. Particular emphasis will be given to molecular rotors since these edible fluorescent compounds offer a non-disruptive and highly sensitive alternative to conventional mechanical methodologies to evaluate the physical properties of foods.

Third, it will provide an overview on the use of optical techniques to measure interfacial processes in food systems and how they can assist in the design and development of novel colloidal carriers. Optical spectroscopy can help to elucidate formation and disintegration mechanisms of delivery systems, especially those of protein based nanoparticles using intrinsic and extrinsic optical probes. Significance of the results and applicability of the proposed measurements will also be covered.

Finally, advances on the use of optical edible compounds as photosensitizers for in situ microbial inactivation will be presented. The recent identification of edible and effective photosensitizers offers a promising alternative to current antimicrobials, particularly for fresh produce applications, due to their GRAS status and the lack of harmful residues.

We expect the audience to gain an overall understanding of the new advances on optical measurements pertinent to the food industry. The combination of the inherent advantages of luminescence spectroscopy—site specific, versatile, non-invasive, rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive—with the attraction of safe and environmentally friendly green molecules that enable measurements in-line during manufacturing or in situ during distribution and use can be of particular importance within the food, medical, and pharmaceutical arenas. Additionally, the implementation of advanced optical techniques will generate insights on the important mechanisms in food processes and help in their optimization and monitoring.
There is a growing interest from consumers in plant-based proteins: according to market analysis, one in three consumers prefers plant proteins over animal proteins, and plant proteins experienced 61% growth from 2010 to 2014. This shift in market trends are largely driven due to vegan/vegetarian diets based on religious and moral beliefs, and/or concerns over issues associated with animal proteins, such as volatile price, allergens, sustainability, and overuse of hormone and antibiotics. While the consumers are switching their preferences to eat more plant proteins, they are not willing to compromise the sensorial qualities that meat, dairy, and egg proteins can offer. There are increasing efforts and breakthroughs in the academia and food industry to find broader sources of plant proteins and explore innovative processing methods and formulation approaches to utilize plant proteins in food applications. In this symposium, the first speaker, Prof. Michael Nickerson, will provide an overview on the current and emerging sources of plant proteins. He will also review the challenges and opportunities in processing methods/technologies for producing plant protein ingredients, and discuss their impact on protein functionality and nutritional quality. The second speaker, Prof. Lingyun Chen, will take a deep dive into the molecular structure and functional relationships of plant proteins. More specifically, she will use several plant proteins (e.g. lentil protein, etc.) as examples and share with us the research her groups conducted in understanding the impact of microstructure on the macroscopic properties (such as foaming, gelation, etc.) and the value-added applications of these features. The third speaker, Dr. Mehmet Tulbek, will take a formulation science approach and showcase the practical use of commercially available plant proteins (e.g. pulse proteins) in food products. Through a number of case studies, he will demonstrate the functionalities of the plant protein and the values it can bring to food manufacturers who are looking to replace egg and dairy proteins, fortify protein content, and reduce cost.
Foods and specialty food ingredients are affected by a myriad of factors from farm to fork that influence their integrity and wholesomeness. In these, oxidation control is of paramount importance in retaining the flavor and taste of food as well as in preventing the formation of potentially toxic components. The session invites world-renowned experts to discuss the state-of-the-art status of the topic. The first speaker, Dr. Eric Decker, who published more than 350 research papers, books, and book chapters, is the IFT Fellow and the ACS Fellow, holding numerous honors and awards. He will talk about the complex nature of food systems and how they can affect the performance of antioxidants. The efficacy of an antioxidant is often unpredictable when the environment changes, which is very challenging for the practical use of natural antioxidants in foods. Dr. Decker’s presentation will provide the most up-to-date information on this topic.

The second speaker, Dr. Fereidoon Shahidi, the IFT Fellow and ACS Fellow, has published over 750 research papers, books, and book chapters, and holds numerous honors and awards. He will give a presentation about bioactive peptides, their antioxidant activity, and their use as healthful food ingredients.

Bioactive peptides are known to reduce blood pressure, scavenge free radicals, and potentially serve as phosphate replacers in muscle foods. Dr. Nora Yang is one of the most renowned experts in lipid oxidation and the author of a chapter of the AOCS Press book Oxidative Stability and Shelf Life of Foods Containing Oils and Fats. She will present the challenges in the evaluation of oxidative stability and shelf life of oils and fats. Since Dr. Yang works in a food ingredient company, she will provide valuable information on how the food industry utilizes the current analytical methods for the accurate evaluation of food quality.

Dr. Min Hu, the fourth speaker, also works in the food industry and is one of the most prominent experts in lipid oxidation. He is the editor of the AOCS Press book Oxidative Stability and Shelf Life of Foods Containing Oils and Fats. Dr. Hu will talk about the utilization of tropical fruit oils. Acai and buriti oils are rich in monounsaturated fatty acid, polyphenols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and phytosterols. Passion fruit seed oil also contains high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols, and polyphenols. Therefore, these oils are considered to be health oils with high oxidative stability. This session covers a wide scope of research areas and deals with current, urgent problems.
Flavanols/tannins are polymerized catechin or gallic acid based constituents abundant in produce that have physiological benefits such as assisting glycemic response and inhibiting bacterial adhesion. The functional properties of flavanols arise from structural characteristics including abundant hydroxylation and planar ring regions, which can facilitate strong molecular interactions with proteins. This ability to complex with proteins can lead to changes in the functional properties of proteins by blocking or altering active sites. A practical effect of flavanol-protein interaction is inhibition of enzyme activity, most notably of the digestive enzymes alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, which in vivo can modulate glucose response after consumption of a high-glycemic content meal. Another functional property of a specific class of condensed tannins is suppression of the adherence of E. coli to epithelium cell walls, thereby inhibiting infection. This symposium will consist of four presentations highlighting: (1) molecular explanation of flavanol/tannin structure and mechanisms of association between flavanols/tannins and proteins; (2) effects of flavanol consumption on glycemic response and determination of blood glucose over time profiles; (3) in vitro determination of the inhibitory effect of flavanols/tannins on digestive enzyme activity; and (4) in vivo benefits of cranberry flavanols.
In formulating protein-fortified foods, a developer often has to factor in physicochemical outcomes of higher protein-protein interactions, e.g., taste, texture, and stability. Hence, successful fortification with proteins is often accompanied with well-considered choices of formulation and processing adjustments to deliver a great-tasting food that meets consumer expectations. Dairy proteins provide numerous functional and nutritional advantages in this regard and are the benchmark for other proteins. Beyond nutrition, dairy proteins are considered as good emulsifiers, texture builders, whipping agents (in some applications), fat substitutes, etc. Speakers in this symposium will shed further light on the macro- and molecular-level behavior of dairy proteins both in the ingredient state as well as in the context of high-protein food systems to maximize their utility. Specifically, insights into dispersibility, astringency, and stability of dairy proteins will be discussed. In addition, relevant impact of processing parameters will be addressed for superior product outcomes.
In this symposium, three food science or chemistry professors from Europe and the US will present and discuss novel and emerging analytical techniques for detection and characterization of nanomaterials in complex food matrices. The extraction and characterization of Engineered Nanomaterials (ENMs) in complex food matrices pose significant analytical challenges mainly due to extremely small size and aggregation of ENMs, as well as inhomogeneous distribution of ENMs in matrices.

This session will offer a unique opportunity for audience participants to learn about recent progress and applications of novel analytical methods for extraction and separation of ENMs from complex matrices using various devices and methods and novel methodologies and strategies for detection and characterization of nanomaterials using a combination of techniques. The advanced analytical methods that will be introduced in this session include light scattering- and mass detectors (Rudd Peters, Wageningen University), single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Honglan Shi, Missouri University of Science and Technology), and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and neutron activation analysis (Mengshi Lin, University of Missouri).